A business development company (BDC) is an SEC-registered investment company that invests in primarily private U.S.-based businesses. Congress created this form of company in 1980 as amendments to the Investment Company Act of 1940. BDCs are typically taxed as regulated investment companies (RICs). Similar to REITs, BDCs are required to distribute at least 90% of taxable income as dividends to investors, and the company itself pays little or no corporate income tax.
Although the regulation for BDCs was passed in 1980, the creation of these companies did not come until the late 1990s and early 2000s. Furthermore, they did not begin to gain popularity until Apollo Investment Corporation raised $930 million in three months in 2004. This ignited a stream of BDC IPOs over the years following. Still the BDC industry remains relatively small when compared to mutual funds, REITs, and other investments. Total BDC assets in the traded and nontraded industry are estimated to be close to $45 billion.
BDCs invest in primarily private companies. They are required to invest 70% or more of their assets in U.S.-based private companies. This is an investment type that was previously limited to institutional and wealthy individuals through private equity and private debt funds. Now through these SEC reporting funds, retail investors have access to private equity and debt investments.
Many times, BDCs will invest in smaller or medium-sized businesses. BDCs may be diversified in the industries they invest in or have a specific industry specialization (i.e., energy, technology, healthcare). Additionally, they may focus on equity investments in companies, debt investments in companies or a hybrid of the two. BDCs utilize management teams and advisors to underwrite investments and make loans or equity investments into companies. So far, nontraded BDCs have primarily been focused on investing in the debt side of businesses.
Additionally, BDCs are required to offer operational or management assistance to the companies they invest in. This provides a layer of support that the companies would not have previously had. Many times the managers of BDCs are very experienced at improving companies’ operations and profitability.